By Rajni Hatti-Kaul
A mix of polymers, or one polymer and a salt, in an aqueous medium separates into stages: this phenomenon turns out to be useful in biotechn- ogy for product separations. Separation of organic molecules and debris in those aqueous two-phase platforms (ATPS) was once initiated over forty years in the past by means of P.-Å. Albertsson, and later proved to be of massive application in biochemical and telephone organic learn. a lift within the software of ATPS was once visible whilst difficulties of separations in biotechnology methods have been encountered. Its simplicity, biocompatibility, and amenability to effortless scaleup operations make using ATPS very appealing for large-scale bioseparations. regardless of the benefits ATPS enjoys over different separation strategies, the appliance of two-phase structures has for a very long time been limited to chose labora- ries. fresh years have, in spite of the fact that, proven a development during which expanding numbers of researchers hire two-phase partitioning options in either uncomplicated and utilized examine.
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Additional info for Aqueous two-phase systems. Methods and protocols
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 008 cm) for small drops. 0 cm are cut to carry or act as the test surfaces. Software: A standard image-analysis package, such as OPTIMAS™ is used to obtain the drop profile. The software necessary to perform the axisymmetric drop shape analysis by numerical integration of the Laplace equation may be obtained commercially through Dr. A. W. ca). Temperature control: Because precise temperature control would be difficult and would require an elaborate chamber, we utilize a laboratory that is thermally controlled to better than ±1°C over the duration of an experiment.
The density difference between the phases must also be determined. The deformation is measured as described below and interpreted via software (3) or reference to published tables (discussed by ref. 4) to obtain a. 2. Electrostatic Potential Difference The other equilibrium parameter that provides useful information on the determinants of the partition coefficient is the electrostatic potential difference Physical Properties of ATPS 37 between the phases, 6^. It is a type of Donnan potential produced by the unequal partition of some ion species, driven usually by partial exclusion from the phase rich in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or related polymers.
Containing the (x,y) coordinates of a sequence of points around the periphery of the image. Usually 50–75 sets of coordinates are sufficient. This drop profile, along with the difference in density between the phases, is the input required for the software that calculates the interfacial tension and contact angle (see Note 7). 9. The density difference must be determined at the same temperature as the sample when the profile is recorded. A small volume pycnometer is weighed dry, then filled with distilled water and equilibrated at the desired temperature, filling the bottle initially with water at a lower temperature than the measurement.
Aqueous two-phase systems. Methods and protocols by Rajni Hatti-Kaul