By Mushabbar A. Syed, Subha V. Raman, Orlando P. Simonetti
This ebook is a finished and authoritative textual content at the increasing scope of CMR, devoted to protecting simple ideas intimately concentrating on the wishes of cardiovascular imagers. the objective viewers for this ebook contains CMR experts, trainees in CMR and cardiovascular medication, cardiovascular physicists or medical cardiovascular imagers. This booklet contains figures and CMR examples within the kind of high-resolution nonetheless photos and is split in sections: uncomplicated MRI physics, i.e. the nuts and bolts of MR imaging; and imaging ideas (pulse sequences) utilized in cardiovascular MR imaging. each one imaging process is mentioned in a separate bankruptcy that incorporates the physics and medical purposes (with cardiovascular examples) of a selected process. Evolving concepts or examine established recommendations are mentioned besides. This part covers either cardiac and vascular imaging. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now thought of a clinically vital imaging modality for sufferers with a large choice of cardiovascular illnesses. fresh advancements in scanner undefined, imaging sequences, and research software program have resulted in third-dimensional, high-resolution imaging of the cardiovascular procedure. those advancements have additionally motivated a large choice of cardiovascular imaging purposes and it's now regularly utilized in scientific perform in CMR laboratories all over the world. The non-invasiveness and absence of ionizing radiation publicity make CMR uniquely vital for sufferers whose scientific situation calls for serial imaging follow-up. this is often fairly real for sufferers with congenital center sickness (CHD) without or with surgical corrections who require lifelong scientific and imaging follow-up.
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Additional resources for Basic Principles of Cardiovascular MRI: Physics and Imaging Technique
Spin mapping – application of moving gradients to Nmr. Phys Lett A. 1974;A 48(2):87–8. out lines are designed as ‘spokes’ such that each pass through 5. Mezrich R. A perspective on K-space. Radiology. 1995;195:297–315. the center of k-space at different rotation angles. The inher6. Likes R S. Moving gradient zeugmatography, US patent 430734, ent oversampling of the center of k-space where the spokes USA, 1981. are naturally closer together leads to benefits for motion 7. Ljunggren S. A simple graphical representation of Fourier-based imaging methods.
In practice, additional 180° pulses are typically incorporated to minimize refocusing errors due to blood flow and inhomogeneities in the B0 and B1 fields. The total duration between the first and second 90° RF pulses is referred to as the T2-preparation period, or T2-prep time. The longer the T2-prep time, the greater is the contrast between regions of myocardium with different T2 values. 0T (<50 ms); beyond these times the overall signal loss due to T2 decay can significantly degrade image quality.
Once a desired spatial resolution and FOV is determined by the user, the number of data points in image space is established, which is identical to the number of k-space samples needed for each line. In the readout direction, not only the gradient strength but also the sampling rate can be adjusted to achieve the target sampling pattern in k-space. By increasing the amplitude GX, we traverse faster through k-space. In order to maintain the proper number of samples and the desired distance in k-space, the sampling rate would also need to be increased and the duration of the acquisition window would be decreased.
Basic Principles of Cardiovascular MRI: Physics and Imaging Technique by Mushabbar A. Syed, Subha V. Raman, Orlando P. Simonetti